Hello and thank you very much to the moderator. Hi, AM Jean. I work for isoc. I'm going to do this presentation in representing the MANRS presentation. Would like to apologize because the slides are in English. That's the language in which they were prepared. In the context.
What do I want to see here today is that internet is a very large network connecting 73,000 odd networks. They're all interconnected. They have their ASN to identify themselves and we talked about how to protect resources so that user users. Are safe online, we considered how to work on how to secure the DNS side.
And what I want to do today is to consider more the protocol that is used by interconnected routers, and that's the BGP protocol. So the border gateway protocol, it makes it possible for networks to exchange and to know which route to use to go from A to B. And these, this protocol is used for internet routing, as Sarah was saying.
The bgp, this is the BGP part that we're looking at. We're not talking about security application of assistance. We're looking at the protocol itself, the BGP protocol, which in itself in the way. Design doesn't enable you to do verifications when information is sent and in itself, in, in the way it's designed, can enable any network to send information, even though the origin of information may not be authentic.
As Boris was saying, IXPs can hijack IXP addresses and prefixes. So we want to see in what way we can prevent some networks from interfere and from stealing other networks or information. So here is a summary of the types of incidents that happened. In real life, in the life, in the, in the past few years in internet.
And it's to show you how important it is to consider protecting the protocol used by all routers for networks. So there are three types of issues. You've got three examples, and we'll look at these three types of problems. The first case was what we call the a root leak. So it was in a sense rerouted when you have if you have a company, you might have several providers.
And when you have several providers in one way or another, you can define your policy. But it might happen that someone makes a mistake and makes a mistake with supplier. And the data going in one way ends up rerouted elsewhere. And that happened before in 2019. For instance, it affected Verizon in the United States.
They ended accepting routes that were not correct. And it has had an impact redirecting traffic for CloudFlare, Facebook and Amazon. And when, how, what heavy weight we're talking about, it's interesting and worrying to, to think that traffic could be going the wrong way. The second type of issue is what Bryce mentioned briefly, is the type of situation when operator X and Congo, for instance, finds itself seeing it addresses used by operator Y in or in South Africa or in Morocco.
This type of issue has consequences. It happened in 2008. YouTube got trapped and it meant that services were unavailable. It had a significant impact in terms of image, but also financial losses. The third type of issue is Address IXP. Address spoofing. It's slightly different from the previous two types of issues.
It's when someone can announce traffic claiming IXP packs packets that are not authentic. So you are using somebody else's block to attack another company. So when the matter is investigated, investigations go to the legitimate owner of the packet where they had nothing to do with the attack and that can create many issues.